Tom Martlev Pallesen, MSc, MBA
Chief Geologist at I-GIS
Mats Lundh Gulbrandsen, Ph.D.
R&D Consultant at I-GIS
The Danish government adopted a new Water Supply Act in 1998, according to which about 40% of the country was designated as particularly valuable for groundwater withdrawal. The Act, in many ways reminiscent of the Californian SGMA, mandated comprehensive hydrogeological mapping of those areas. The aim of the Act was to establish site-specific groundwater protection zones and associated regulation of land use. This effort was completed in an exemplary public-private partnership in 2015, with a total estimated cost about €250 million (Refsgaard, 2009).
The size and scope of the mapping project, with many public and private stakeholders and actors, working over a very wide time period, created a need for new, integrated data management and optimized software tools to effectively process, manage, visualize and model the data to generate 3D conceptual models, targeting the groundwater resource mapping. Through a series of concrete examples, we present workflows and methods developed for the 3D hydrogeological conceptual model building, together with some of the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented while working with the Danish version of SGMA, and in other countries as well.
Integrated methods and systems
From the very onset of the mapping campaign, a series of national databases where established to hold the new data to be acquired. These were backed by a series of new software tools, for processing the data and building the 3D hydrogeological conceptual models. In combination, these form the integrated data management and groundwater mapping infrastructure used in Denmark today, for building, maintaining and managing the data and models generated.
3D modelling examples
A key geophysical method developed was the adaption and improvement of airborne geophysical methods, traditionally used for mining, to the new, more subtle groundwater target. The methods produced massive volumes of data that had to be handled efficiently. We present a range of 3D modelling examples where these data are combined with other data types in constructing 3D hydrogeological conceptual models. In Denmark, water supplies are also reliant on water extraction in heavily populated areas, which has led to the development of 3D modelling tools for urban geological models. Here, man-made features are incorporated directly into the geological model. These urban model types are seeing a large deal of development, as they are also utilized for handling of large amounts of water, induced by more frequent heavy rains.
A series of 3D modelling scenarios will be presented, including workflow, obstacles and solutions developed.
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Tom Martlev Pallesen is a senior geologist with an extensive experience in 3D hydrogeologic conceptual modelling and project management. He has focus on the development of new modeling concepts and the integration of data and geology.
Mats Lundh Gulbrandsen is an industrial Post Doc at I-GIS, affiliated with the Niels-Bohr Institute at the university of Copenhagen. Mats is deeply involved in developing new methods for the 3D geological modelling process, utilizing geostatistics and machine learning techiques.
Tim Parker is Principal Hydrogeologist, Parker Groundwater, in Sacramento California, specializing in integrated water resources and groundwater management, and serving public and private sector water industry clients. His current work largely focuses on assisting clients in meeting the new California Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requirements, while his experience includes water policy analysis, strategic water resources planning, groundwater management plan development and program implementation, regional and project scale groundwater monitoring for quantity and quality, groundwater recharge & storage projects, and litigation support. He formerly worked for Schlumberger Water and Carbon Services bringing sophisticated oil and gas industry geophysical tools and technologies to water industry clients, and prior to that he was with the California Department of Water Services Conjunctive Water Management Program. Tim is a licensed professional geologist, certified engineering geologist, and certified hydrogeologist.